manzanar, one
         iv, v, vi

step, stoep, stoop
hut house

pro forma

corner crowns


crystal city
     ojichan’s home

     views from inside, ii


Step, Stoep, Stoop


Derived from the Dutch word “stoep,” meaning step, the classic New York brownstone stoop comes from the Dutch custom of elevating the main floor above the ground [12]. Buildings were prone to flooding in Holland’s wet terrain, and were thus raised [13]. In New York, the raising of the main floor in effect provided two ground floors: one for utility, service, and delivery, and the other for social reception [14]. By the 1860’s, “the classic ‘brownstone’ had emerged…The ground floor was slightly below grade, with a room at the front and a kitchen at the rear – and fairly good light.” (Gray, Christopher, “A Town House’s Past, and Its Missing Neighbor(s).” New York Times, June 5, 2005.) Originally built as a single-family home, over time, it became common for the brownstone to house multiple tenants on each of the separate floors. Today, the stoop is often depicted as a hub of social and cultural gathering, a vibrant zone of informal interactions and encounters, of leisure, as well as a means of collective security and public safety [15].

A proposal for a temporary pavilion.

[12] Jacobs, Andrew. “Stoops: Steeped in History.” The New York Times, Mar 10, 1996.
[13] Gray, Christopher. “Brownstone Stoops.” The New York Times, Jan 28, 1982.
[14] Jacobs, Andrew. “Stoops: Steeped in History.” The New York Times, Mar 10, 1996.
[15] Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage Books, 2016, p 35.